In Spain, the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia has 3D printed a structure using natural materials including dirt, aloe, egg whites, and enzymes. Dubbed TOVA, the prototype structure is zero-waste and only sources materials from within a 50-meter radius.
“3D printing or additive manufacturing is a great example of km zero construction, as the construction work can be done 100% with local materials and labor,” IAAC tells designboom.com. “In addition, the printing system allows highly customizable houses for different use cases; such as communities of homes and services that can be rapidly created using this technology anywhere.” Construction is responsible for over a third of global carbon dioxide emissions, according to IAAC.
Build at Valldaura Labs using a 3D printer from WASP, TOVA’s roof is wooden, and a waterproof coating was added to ensure durability—even in extreme weather conditions. Cavities within the walls help maintain heat in winter and shield from solar radiation in warmer months.